搭建 MongoDB分片(sharding) / 分区 / 集群环境

搭建 MongoDB分片(sharding) / 分区 / 集群环境

1. 安装 MongoDB

三台机器

关闭防火墙

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systemctl stop firewalld.service
192.168.252.121 192.168.252.122 192.168.252.123
mongos mongos mongos
config server config server config server
shard server1 主节点 shard server1 副节点 shard server1 仲裁
shard server2 仲裁 shard server2 主节点 shard server2 副节点
shard server3 副节点 shard server3 仲裁 shard server3 主节点

端口分配:

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mongos:20000
config:21000
shard1:27001
shard2:27002
shard3:27003

下载并且安装

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wget https://fastdl.mongodb.org/linux/mongodb-linux-x86_64-amazon-3.6.2.tgz
tar -xzvf mongodb-linux-x86_64-amazon-3.6.2.tgz -C /usr/local/

所有版本二进制文件,自行下载

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https://www.mongodb.org/dl/win32/x86_64-2008plus-ssl?_ga=2.87139544.1567998244.1517190032-1153843332.1517190032&_gac=1.204211492.1517212002.EAIaIQobChMI44v9_9b82AIV1AcqCh0lcABIEAAYASAAEgKI1_D_BwE

改名

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cd /usr/local/
mv mongodb-linux-x86_64-amazon-3.6.2 mongodb

分别在每台机器建立conf、mongos、config、shard1、shard2、shard3六个目录,因为mongos不存储数据,只需要建立日志文件目录即可。

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mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/conf \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/mongos/log \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/config/data \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/config/log \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/data \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/log \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard2/data \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard2/log \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard3/data \
mkdir -p /usr/local/mongodb/shard3/log

配置环境变量

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vi /etc/profile
# MongoDB 环境变量内容
export MONGODB_HOME=/usr/local/mongodb
export PATH=$MONGODB_HOME/bin:$PATH

使立即生效

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source /etc/profile

2. config server配置服务器

mongodb3.4以后要求配置服务器也创建副本集,不然集群搭建不成功。

(三台机器)添加配置文件

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vi /usr/local/mongodb/conf/config.conf

## 配置文件内容
pidfilepath = /usr/local/mongodb/config/log/configsrv.pid
dbpath = /usr/local/mongodb/config/data
logpath = /usr/local/mongodb/config/log/congigsrv.log
logappend = true

bind_ip = 0.0.0.0
port = 21000
fork = true

#declare this is a config db of a cluster;
configsvr = true

#副本集名称
replSet = configs

#设置最大连接数
maxConns = 20000

启动三台服务器的config server

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mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/config.conf

登录任意一台配置服务器,初始化配置副本集

连接 MongoDB

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mongo --port 21000

config 变量

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config = {
_id : "configs",
members : [
{_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:21000" },
{_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:21000" },
{_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:21000" }
]
}

初始化副本集

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rs.initiate(config)

其中,”_id” : “configs”应与配置文件中配置的 replicaction.replSetName 一致,”members” 中的 “host” 为三个节点的 ip 和 port

响应内容如下

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> config = {
... _id : "configs",
... members : [
... {_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:21000" },
... {_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:21000" },
... {_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:21000" }
... ]
... }
{
"_id" : "configs",
"members" : [
{
"_id" : 0,
"host" : "192.168.252.121:21000"
},
{
"_id" : 1,
"host" : "192.168.252.122:21000"
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"host" : "192.168.252.123:21000"
}
]
}
> rs.initiate(config);
{
"ok" : 1,
"operationTime" : Timestamp(1517369899, 1),
"$gleStats" : {
"lastOpTime" : Timestamp(1517369899, 1),
"electionId" : ObjectId("000000000000000000000000")
},
"$clusterTime" : {
"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1517369899, 1),
"signature" : {
"hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
}
}
}
configs:SECONDARY>

此时会发现终端上的输出已经有了变化。

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//从单个一个
>
//变成了
configs:SECONDARY>

查询状态

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configs:SECONDARY> rs.status()

3. 配置分片副本集

3.1 设置第一个分片副本集

(三台机器)设置第一个分片副本集

配置文件

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vi /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard1.conf

#配置文件内容
#——————————————–
pidfilepath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/log/shard1.pid
dbpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/data
logpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/log/shard1.log
logappend = true

bind_ip = 0.0.0.0
port = 27001
fork = true

#副本集名称
replSet = shard1

#declare this is a shard db of a cluster;
shardsvr = true

#设置最大连接数
maxConns = 20000

启动三台服务器的shard1 server

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mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard1.conf

登陆任意一台服务器,初始化副本集(除了192.168.252.123)

连接 MongoDB

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mongo --port 27001

使用admin数据库

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use admin

定义副本集配置

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config = {
_id : "shard1",
members : [
{_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27001" },
{_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27001" },
{_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27001" , arbiterOnly: true }
]
}

初始化副本集配置

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rs.initiate(config)

响应内容如下

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> use admin
switched to db admin
> config = {
... _id : "shard1",
... members : [
... {_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27001" },
... {_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27001" },
... {_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27001" , arbiterOnly: true }
... ]
... }
{
"_id" : "shard1",
"members" : [
{
"_id" : 0,
"host" : "192.168.252.121:27001"
},
{
"_id" : 1,
"host" : "192.168.252.122:27001"
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"host" : "192.168.252.123:27001",
"arbiterOnly" : true
}
]
}
> rs.initiate(config)
{ "ok" : 1 }

此时会发现终端上的输出已经有了变化。

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//从单个一个
>
//变成了
shard1:SECONDARY>

查询状态

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shard1:SECONDARY> rs.status()

3.2 设置第二个分片副本集

设置第二个分片副本集

配置文件

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vi /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard2.conf

#配置文件内容
#——————————————–
pidfilepath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard2/log/shard2.pid
dbpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard2/data
logpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard2/log/shard2.log
logappend = true

bind_ip = 0.0.0.0
port = 27002
fork = true

#副本集名称
replSet=shard2

#declare this is a shard db of a cluster;
shardsvr = true

#设置最大连接数
maxConns=20000

启动三台服务器的shard2 server

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mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard2.conf

连接 MongoDB

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mongo --port 27002

使用admin数据库

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use admin

定义副本集配置

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config = {
_id : "shard2",
members : [
{_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27002" , arbiterOnly: true },
{_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27002" },
{_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27002" }
]
}

初始化副本集配置

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rs.initiate(config)

响应内容如下

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> use admin
switched to db admin
> config = {
... _id : "shard2",
... members : [
... {_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27002" , arbiterOnly: true },
... {_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27002" },
... {_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27002" }
... ]
... }
{
"_id" : "shard2",
"members" : [
{
"_id" : 0,
"host" : "192.168.252.121:27002",
"arbiterOnly" : true
},
{
"_id" : 1,
"host" : "192.168.252.122:27002"
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"host" : "192.168.252.123:27002"
}
]
}
> rs.initiate(config)
{ "ok" : 1 }
shard2:SECONDARY> rs.status()

3.3 设置第三个分片副本集

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vi /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard3.conf

#配置文件内容
#——————————————–
pidfilepath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard3/log/shard3.pid
dbpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard3/data
logpath = /usr/local/mongodb/shard3/log/shard3.log
logappend = true

bind_ip = 0.0.0.0
port = 27003
fork = true

#副本集名称
replSet=shard3

#declare this is a shard db of a cluster;
shardsvr = true

#设置最大连接数
maxConns=20000

启动三台服务器的shard3 server

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mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard3.conf

登陆任意一台服务器,初始化副本集(除了192.168.252.121)

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mongo --port 27003

使用admin数据库

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use admin

定义副本集配置

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config = {
_id : "shard3",
members : [
{_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27003" },
{_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27003" , arbiterOnly: true},
{_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27003" }
]
}

初始化副本集配置

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rs.initiate(config)

响应内容如下

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> use admin
switched to db admin
> config = {
... _id : "shard3",
... members : [
... {_id : 0, host : "192.168.252.121:27003" },
... {_id : 1, host : "192.168.252.122:27003" , arbiterOnly: true},
... {_id : 2, host : "192.168.252.123:27003" }
... ]
... }
{
"_id" : "shard3",
"members" : [
{
"_id" : 0,
"host" : "192.168.252.121:27003"
},
{
"_id" : 1,
"host" : "192.168.252.122:27003",
"arbiterOnly" : true
},
{
"_id" : 2,
"host" : "192.168.252.123:27003"
}
]
}
> rs.initiate(config)
{ "ok" : 1 }
shard3:SECONDARY> rs.status()

3.4 配置路由服务器 mongos

(三台机器)先启动配置服务器和分片服务器,后启动路由实例启动路由实例:

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vi /usr/local/mongodb/conf/mongos.conf

#内容
pidfilepath = /usr/local/mongodb/mongos/log/mongos.pid
logpath = /usr/local/mongodb/mongos/log/mongos.log
logappend = true

bind_ip = 0.0.0.0
port = 20000
fork = true

#监听的配置服务器,只能有1个或者3个 configs为配置服务器的副本集名字
configdb = configs/192.168.252.121:21000,192.168.252.122:21000,192.168.252.123:21000

#设置最大连接数
maxConns = 20000

启动三台服务器的mongos server

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mongos -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/mongos.conf

4. 串联路由服务器

目前搭建了mongodb配置服务器、路由服务器,各个分片服务器,不过应用程序连接到mongos路由服务器并不能使用分片机制,还需要在程序里设置分片配置,让分片生效。

登陆任意一台mongos

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mongo --port 20000

使用admin数据库

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use  admin

串联路由服务器与分配副本集

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sh.addShard("shard1/192.168.252.121:27001,192.168.252.122:27001,192.168.252.123:27001");
sh.addShard("shard2/192.168.252.121:27002,192.168.252.122:27002,192.168.252.123:27002");
sh.addShard("shard3/192.168.252.121:27003,192.168.252.122:27003,192.168.252.123:27003");

查看集群状态

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sh.status()

响应内容如下

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mongos> sh.status()
--- Sharding Status ---
sharding version: {
"_id" : 1,
"minCompatibleVersion" : 5,
"currentVersion" : 6,
"clusterId" : ObjectId("5a713a37d56e076f3eb47acf")
}
shards:
{ "_id" : "shard1", "host" : "shard1/192.168.252.121:27001,192.168.252.122:27001", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard2", "host" : "shard2/192.168.252.122:27002,192.168.252.123:27002", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard3", "host" : "shard3/192.168.252.121:27003,192.168.252.123:27003", "state" : 1 }
active mongoses:
"3.6.2" : 3
autosplit:
Currently enabled: yes
balancer:
Currently enabled: yes
Currently running: no
Failed balancer rounds in last 5 attempts: 0
Migration Results for the last 24 hours:
No recent migrations
databases:
{ "_id" : "config", "primary" : "config", "partitioned" : true }

mongos>

5. 启用集合分片生效

目前配置服务、路由服务、分片服务、副本集服务都已经串联起来了,但我们的目的是希望插入数据,数据能够自动分片。连接在mongos上,准备让指定的数据库、指定的集合分片生效。

登陆任意一台mongos

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mongo --port 20000

使用admin数据库

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use  admin

指定testdb分片生效

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db.runCommand( { enablesharding :"testdb"});

指定数据库里需要分片的集合和片键,哈希id 分片

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db.runCommand( { shardcollection : "testdb.table1",key : {"id": "hashed"} } );

我们设置testdb的 table1 表需要分片,根据 id 自动分片到 shard1 ,shard2,shard3 上面去。要这样设置是因为不是所有mongodb 的数据库和表 都需要分片!

测试分片配置结果

连接 MongoDB 路由服务

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mongo  127.0.0.1:20000

切换到 testdb 数据库

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use  testdb;

插入测试数据

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for(i=1;i<=100000;i++){db.table1.insert({"id":i,"name":"penglei"})};

总条数

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db.table1.aggregate([{$group : {_id : "$name", totle : {$sum : 1}}}])

查看分片情况如下

  • shard1: “count”: 33755
  • shard2: “count”: 33143,
  • shard3: “count”: 33102

结论数据基本均匀

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db.table1.stats();
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mongos> db.table1.stats();
{
"sharded": true,
"capped": false,
"ns": "testdb.table1",
"count": 100000,
"size": 5200000,
"storageSize": 1519616,
"totalIndexSize": 3530752,
"indexSizes": {
"_id_": 892928,
"id_hashed": 2637824
},
"avgObjSize": 52,
"nindexes": 2,
"nchunks": 6,
"shards": {
"shard1": {
"ns": "testdb.table1",
"size": 1755260,
"count": 33755,
"avgObjSize": 52,
"storageSize": 532480,
"capped": false,
"wiredTiger": {
...省略很多
}
},
"shard2": {
"ns": "testdb.table1",
"size": 1723436,
"count": 33143,
"avgObjSize": 52,
"storageSize": 479232,
"capped": false,
"wiredTiger": {
...省略很多
}
},
"shard3": {
"ns": "testdb.table1",
"size": 1721304,
"count": 33102,
"avgObjSize": 52,
"storageSize": 507904,
"capped": false,
"wiredTiger": {
...省略很多
}
}
},
"ok": 1,
"$clusterTime": {
"clusterTime": Timestamp(1517488062, 350),
"signature": {
"hash": BinData(0, "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
"keyId": NumberLong(0)
}
},
"operationTime": Timestamp(1517488062, 350)
}
mongos>
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mongos> sh.status()
--- Sharding Status ---
sharding version: {
"_id" : 1,
"minCompatibleVersion" : 5,
"currentVersion" : 6,
"clusterId" : ObjectId("5a73053f896ba937d7beb807")
}
shards:
{ "_id" : "shard1", "host" : "shard1/192.168.252.121:27001,192.168.252.122:27001", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard2", "host" : "shard2/192.168.252.122:27002,192.168.252.123:27002", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard3", "host" : "shard3/192.168.252.121:27003,192.168.252.123:27003", "state" : 1 }
active mongoses:
"3.6.2" : 3
autosplit:
Currently enabled: yes
balancer:
Currently enabled: yes
Currently running: no
Failed balancer rounds in last 5 attempts: 0
Migration Results for the last 24 hours:
2 : Success
databases:
{ "_id" : "config", "primary" : "config", "partitioned" : true }
config.system.sessions
shard key: { "_id" : 1 }
unique: false
balancing: true
chunks:
shard1 1
{ "_id" : { "$minKey" : 1 } } -->> { "_id" : { "$maxKey" : 1 } } on : shard1 Timestamp(1, 0)
{ "_id" : "testdb", "primary" : "shard1", "partitioned" : true }
testdb.table1
shard key: { "id" : "hashed" }
unique: false
balancing: true
chunks:
shard1 2
shard2 2
shard3 2
{ "id" : { "$minKey" : 1 } } -->> { "id" : NumberLong("-6148914691236517204") } on : shard1 Timestamp(3, 2)
{ "id" : NumberLong("-6148914691236517204") } -->> { "id" : NumberLong("-3074457345618258602") } on : shard1 Timestamp(3, 3)
{ "id" : NumberLong("-3074457345618258602") } -->> { "id" : NumberLong(0) } on : shard2 Timestamp(3, 4)
{ "id" : NumberLong(0) } -->> { "id" : NumberLong("3074457345618258602") } on : shard2 Timestamp(3, 5)
{ "id" : NumberLong("3074457345618258602") } -->> { "id" : NumberLong("6148914691236517204") } on : shard3 Timestamp(3, 6)
{ "id" : NumberLong("6148914691236517204") } -->> { "id" : { "$maxKey" : 1 } } on : shard3 Timestamp(3, 7)

mongos>

分组查看总数量是:100000

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mongos> db.table1.aggregate([{$group : {_id : "$name", totle : {$sum : 1}}}])
{ "_id" : "penglei", "totle" : 100000 }
mongos>

后期运维

参考

手把手教你 MongoDB 的安装与详细使用(一)

https://www.ymq.io/2018/01/26/MongoDB-1/

手把手教你 MongoDB 的安装与详细使用(二)

https://www.ymq.io/2018/01/29/MongoDB-2/

创建索引

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db.table1.createIndex({"name":1})
db.table1.getIndexes()

启动

mongodb的启动顺序是,先启动配置服务器,在启动分片,最后启动mongos.

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mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/config.conf
mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard1.conf
mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard2.conf
mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard3.conf
mongos -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/mongos.conf

启动报错

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about to fork child process, waiting until server is ready for connections.
forked process: 1303
child process started successfully, parent exiting
[root@node1 ~]# mongod -f /usr/local/mongodb/conf/shard1.conf
about to fork child process, waiting until server is ready for connections.
forked process: 1384

删除 mongod.lock

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cd /usr/local/mongodb/shard1/data
rm -rf mongod.lock

关闭防火墙(不关防火墙也会遇到这样的问题)

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systemctl stop firewalld.service

关闭

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#debian、ubuntu系统下:

apt-get install psmisc

#centos或、rhel系统下:

yum install psmisc

关闭时,直接killall杀掉所有进程

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killall mongod
killall mongos

参考:

mongodb 3.4 集群搭建:分片+副本集 http://www.ityouknow.com/mongodb/2017/08/05/mongodb-cluster-setup.html

Runoob 教程:http://www.runoob.com/mongodb/mongodb-tutorial.html
Tutorials 教程:Pointhttps://www.tutorialspoint.com/mongodb/mongodb_advantages.htm
MongoDB 官网地址:https://www.mongodb.com
MongoDB 官方英文文档:https://docs.mongodb.com/manual
MongoDB 各平台下载地址:https://www.mongodb.com/download-center#community
MongoDB 安装 https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/install-mongodb-enterprise-on-ubuntu


作者:搜云库技术团队
出处:https://www.souyunku.com
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